Cancer refers to an abnormal growth of cells characterized by the development of preternatural cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to penetrate and destroy normal body tissues. These abnormal cells are termed Malignant or tumor cells. Cancers are equally termed the second-leading cause of death in the world.
|Percentage of patients deceased within 5 years after diagnosis|
Reference: www.cancer.gov/statistics/find (Statistics from the period between 2003 and 2009)
But survival rates are improving for many types of cancer, thanks to improvements in cancer screening and cancer treatment.
In the past cancer was considered to be fatal. However, nowadays it has come to be recognized as a curable illness.
- Breast cancer – The most common tumor in women, presents a high survival percentage: 83% of patients have survived this type of cancer after five years.
- Lung cancer – One of the most aggressive tumors and survival after five years is very low: only 10% of patients diagnosed with a malignant neoplasm survive for more than five years.
- Colorectal cancer (colon and rectum) – The most common malignant tumor if we group men and women together, presents an average survival rate of 50-55% five years after diagnosis, meaning that half the patients survive this form of cancer.
- Prostate cancer Today the most common tumor in men, has an increasingly favorable prognosis, with a global survival rate of 76%, which is higher in young adults.
- Ovarian cancer – Presents a very varied prognosis depending on age: whilst 70% of the group between 15 and 44 years survives this form of cancer, this is the case for only 19% of those over 74 years old.
- Testicular cancer – A rare malignant tumor that mainly affects middle-aged males, is the tumor with the best prognosis, with a 95% survival rate five years after diagnosis.
- Skin melanoma – Displays one of the highest survival rates, reaching values over 85%, although there are European countries where recovery exceeds 90%.
- Hodgkin’s lymphoma – Displays high recovery with survival greater than 92% amongst young people, although amongst elderly groups it fails to reach 50%.
There are more than 100 types of cancer, including breast cancer, skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and lymphoma. Symptoms vary depending on the type.
The three most common cancers in men, women, and children in the world are as follows:
- Men: Prostate, lung, and colorectal
- Women: Breast, lung, and colorectal
- Children: Leukemia, brain tumors, and lymphoma
Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts. Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in Africa. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it’s far more common in women.
Substantial support for breast cancer awareness and research funding has helped create advances in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Breast cancer survival rates have increased, and the number of deaths associated with this disease is steadily declining, largely due to factors such as earlier detection, a new personalized approach to treatment and a better understanding of the disease.
TYPES OF BREAST CANCER
2.) Recurrent breast cancer
3.) Paget’s disease of the breast
4.) Invasive lobular carcinomar
5.) Male breast cancer
6.) Inflammatory breast cancer
7.) ductar carcinomar in situ
SYMPTOMS OF BREAST CANCER
1.) A newly inverted nipple.
2.) Redness or pitting of the skin over your breast, like the skin of an orange.
3.) A breast lump or thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue
4.) Change in the size, shape or appearance of a breast.
5.) Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling.
6.) Peeling, scaling, crusting or flaking of the pigmented area of skin surrounding the nipple (areola) or breast skin.
A breast cancer risk factor is anything that expose one to develop breast cancer. Being exposed to several breast cancer risk factors doesn’t really mean you’ll develop breast cancer. Many women who develop breast cancer have no known risk factors other than simply being women.
Factors that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer include
1.) Being female: Women are much more likely than men are to develop breast cancer.
2.) Increasing age. Your risk of breast cancer increases as you age.
3.) A personal history of breast conditions. If you’ve had a breast biopsy that found lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) or atypical of the breast, you have an increased risk of breast cancer.
4.)A family history of breast cancer: If your mother, sister or daughter was diagnosed with breast cancer, particularly at a young age, your risk of breast cancer is increased. Still, the majority of people diagnosed with breast cancer have no family history of the disease.
5.) Inherited genes that increase cancer risk: Certain gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer can be passed from parents to children. The most well-known gene mutations are referred to as BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes can greatly increase your risk of breast cancer and other cancers, but they don’t make cancer inevitable.
6.) Radiation exposure. If you received radiation treatments to your chest as a child or young adult, your risk of breast cancer is increased
7.) Obesity: Being obese increases your risk of breast cancer
- Ask your doctor about breast cancer screening. Discuss with your doctor when to begin breast cancer screening exams and tests, such as clinical breast exams and mammograms.Talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of screening. Together, you can decide what breast cancer screening strategies are right for you.
- Become familiar with your breasts through breast self-exam for breast awareness. Women may choose to become familiar with their breasts by occasionally inspecting their breasts during a breast self-exam for breast awareness. If there is a new change, lumps or other unusual signs in your breasts, talk to your doctor promptly.Breast awareness can’t prevent breast cancer, but it may help you to better understand the normal changes that your breasts undergo and identify any unusual signs and symptoms.
- Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. Limit the amount of alcohol you drink to no more than one drink a day, if you choose to drink.
- Exercise most days of the week. Aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise on most days of the week. If you haven’t been active lately, ask your doctor whether it’s OK and start slowly.
- Limit postmenopausal hormone therapy. Combination hormone therapy may increase the risk of breast cancer. Talk with your doctor about the benefits and risks of hormone therapy.Some women experience bothersome signs and symptoms during menopause and, for these women, the increased risk of breast cancer may be acceptable in order to relieve menopause signs and symptoms.To reduce the risk of breast cancer, use the lowest dose of hormone therapy possible for the shortest amount of time.
- Maintain a healthy weight. If your weight is healthy, work to maintain that weight. If you need to lose weight, ask your doctor about healthy strategies to accomplish this. Reduce the number of calories you eat each day and slowly increase the amount of exercise.
- Choose a healthy diet. Women who eat a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and mixed nuts may have a reduced risk of breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet focuses mostly on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over butter and fish instead of red meat.